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Blocked Funnel

Now the walls of the hopper are not as steep as in the previous example. The flow ends when an arch forms spontaneously and the hopper is blocked.

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Tapped Tunnel

The next example shows a hopper with a small outlet and a few large particles. The hopper blocks twice. The clogging is removed by tapping the hopper, so that all particles are accelerated upwards.

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A Hole as a Funnel

Not quite a hopper, but a hole in the floor.

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Funnel II

Now we have the same geometry as in the other funnel, but the shape of the particles was initialized slightly different. The hopper is not blocked.

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Steep Funnel

Now the slopes of the hopper are much steeper than in the previous examples. We see here the mass flow regime, where the particles pour through the outlet like in a liquid.

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Funnel I

Now we have a hopper, filled with about 1300 particles. We can see the funnel-flow of the grains. At the end, two particles on the upper left are stuck.

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Constructing a Heap from a Line Source

Here a sand pile is build from a line source to demonstrate the importance of static friction in sandheaps. At time step 420 the friction coefficient is quickly reduced to zero. The pile melts and the granulate flows like a liquid. You can find more information in these publications.

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Constructing a Heap from a Point Source - Stress

For the simulation, we have calculated the stress tensors inside the pile. In this movie, the major principal axis of the stress (crosses) and the pressure on the ground (arrows) are shown. You can find more information in these publications.

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Constructing a Heap from a Point Source - Forcenet

The time evolution of the force network of a sand pile which is built from a point source is shown. The width of the blue lines is proportional to the strength of the forces. The red arrows are the forces onto the ground. Note that the avalanches either go left or right and therefore lead always to slight asymmetries of the heap. You can find more information in these publications.

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Constructing a Heap from a Point Source II

This heap is the same as the last example. In the top frame you can see the stress tensors inside of the pile. The second frame shows the forcenetwork; small forces are black, medium forces are red and strong forces are yellow. The 8 small frames show the axis of the major principal axis in the different layers of the pile. The last frame shows the pressure distribution. You can find more information in these publications.

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